Welcome

Welcome to Sac Umpires. To comment, join the new discussions in the forum, read and contribute to the Wiki area about local rules etc., please register or log in.

Section 2.0 – R1 on 1st Base

Section 2.0 – R1 on 1st Base 
   
2.1 – General Positioning – BU Starting Position “B” with R1 on 1st Base:

2.1.1 – BU’s Starting Position with R1 on 1st (see Diagram 2.1.1):

  • BU will position on the 1st base side of the infield 
  • BU will position himself  midway between the back edge of the grass of the pitcher’s mound and the 2nd base cutout
  • BU should position himself so that if an “imaginary line” were drawn from home plate through the right edge of the pitcher’s mound towards 2nd base, BU would be straddling that line. 
  • BU’s body should be squared to the edge of home plate. 
  • This position is often referred to as Starting Position “B”
  • (The positioning just described refers to fields where the grass lines are as recommended in the Official Rules.  The umpire will have to adjust accordingly on fields which vary from this standard.)

    (The positioning just described refers to fields where the grass lines are as recommended the Official Rules and as shown in Diagram 2.1.1.  BU will have to adjust accordingly on fields which vary from this standard.)  This is the same positioning that will be used with  runners on 3rd and 1st bases also.

Important Note: This starting positioning “B” with a runner on 1st base only is very important, and umpires should make sure that they are not too deep towards 2nd base when they assume this position.  If BU is positioned midway between the mound and 2nd base as described in the previous paragraph, he will be in a good starting position for pick-offs at 1st base (see Section 2.2), for steals of 2nd base (see Section 2.3 ), for double plays (see Section 2.4),  as well as deep enough to dodge line drives hit directly at him.


Diagram 2.1.1: Starting Position “B” with R1 on 1st base only.

2.2 – Pick-Offs at 1st Base, Rundowns with R1 on 1st Base

2.2.1 – Proper Starting Position Leads to Superior Play Viewing:

Proper Starting Position Essential for Pick-Offs at 1st (see Diagram 2.1.1): 

  • It is very important that BU assume the proper starting position “B” in the middle of the infield with R1 on 1st base.  This starting position is particularly critical when it comes to pick-offs at 1st base because if BU is too “deep” towards 2nd base to start with, he will never be able to get a proper angle for the pick-off at 1st base and will end up looking up the back end of the play at 1st. 


Diagram 2.2.1: On a pick off to 1st base from starting position “B”, BU takes two explosive steps toward the 45 foot mark on the 1st base foul line.  This will open angle as well as reduce distance.

2.2.2 – Pick-Offs to 1st Base with R1 on 1st:

F1 Attempts a Pick-Off to 1st  (see Diagram 2.2.1):

  • BU should focus on F1 prior to the pick-off.
  • As BU sees F1 begin to throw to 1st base in a pick-off attempt, there are two acceptable methods of covering the play. 

These two methods differ only in the steps taken by BU as he moves into position for the play, and either of the following two procedures is acceptable:

  • BU will take a quick step forward with his left foot, moving in the direction of the 45-foot line.  After taking this initial step forward, BU will turn (pivoting on his left foot), face the play, and set for the call.
  • BU will take two quick steps forward starting with his right foot, moving in the direction of the 45-foot line.  After taking two steps forward (right followed by left), BU will turn (pivoting on his left foot), face the play, and set for the call. 

Important Notes:

  • The preceding two techniques are very similar; the basic difference being how much time is available and how much distance may be gained during the pick-off move.  The second alternative allows BU to take one extra steps towards the 45-foot line before turning and facing the play.  Always use the time available wisely and position to see the play well.
  • The pick-off from F1 takes little time and means BU has very little time to react, step and set.  Two steps on this pick is about all that can be achieved realistically.

F2 Attempts a Pick-Off to 1st :
It is possible that F2 may try to pick off R1at 1st base with a quick throw following a pitch.  If this should happen, BU’s movements would be virtually the same as just described for a pick-off move by F1 (See Diagram 2.2.1).

  • BU will read F2’s movements preparing to throw the ball to 1st base after the pitch cresses the plate and is caught
  • BU will anticipate the throw by starting to move in the direction of the 45-foot line. 
  • BU will take two or more quick cross-over steps forward starting with his left foot
  • BU will move as far as the play will allow.
  • After taking several steps forward, BU will turn (pivoting on his left foot),
  • Face the play, and set for the call  just before the tag is applied.

Important Note:

  • The pick-off from F2 takes longer to develop and gives BU more time to gain ground, develop angle and position for the play.  The key is to read F2 receive the pitch, step towards 1st, react immediately by moving toward the 45 foot line, gain as much ground as the play will permit while getting set before the tag is applied on R1 at 1st base.

2.2.3 – With a Rundown on R1 between 1st & 2nd: Occasionally R1 may get into a rundown after a pick-off attempt.  On a Pick-off from F1 or F2 with R1 on 1st base, it would be possible for a rundown to develop on R1 between 1st and 2nd.  If the rundown should develop between 1st and 2nd:

  • When these rundowns start, BU is responsible for it entirely (see Diagram 2.2.3-a).
  • When PU sees one of these rundowns, PU will run down the foul line towards the 1st base cutout.
  • PU should wait until BR is running the opposite way from the cutout before setting up in the cutout.  (He must be careful not to run his partner off during the rundown.)
  • As PU is moving into the cutout and is ready to assume responsibility, he will communicate to BU, “I’ve got this end, Bill! I’ve got this end!” 
  • PU will then be responsible for any play made on BR at the cutout area only.
  • BU will still have the responsibility for the rest of the rundown (see Diagram 2.2.3-b).


Diagram 2.2.3-a: As R1 gets picked off and the rundown begins between 1st and 2nd, BU will take the entire rundown by himself.  BU will step back towards pitcher’s mound and deepen his working area while shortening the distance needed to see plays at both bases.


Diagram 2.2.3-b: As R1 gets picked off and the rundown begins between 1st and 2nd, BU will take the entire rundown by himself.  As the rundown continues to evolve, PU moves towards the play and inserts himself into the rundown coverage to help out when BR is moving away from 1st base.  PU will take plays in the 1st base “cutout” area only.

2.3 – Steals at 2nd Base with R1 from 1st Base

2.3.1 – Successful Coverage Starts Before the Play with R1 Stealing 2nd:

  • It is important that BU has established a good original starting position “B” in the middle of the infield-one that will be advantageous for both steals as well as pick-offs at 1st base.  BU’s starting position “B” should not be too ”deep” towards 2nd base, yet not too close to the mound (see Section 2.1.1).

2.3.2 – Reading the Beginning of R1 Stealing 2nd:

  • BU should be adept at recognizing that R1 is stealing through being alert and picking up on certain actions and cues on the field.
  1. BU should be able to pick up the initial movements of the runner breaking to 2nd base through his peripheral vision, even though his eyes are still focused on the plate. 
  2. BU should react to the defense’s exclamation, “Going!” as the runner breaks for 2nd base. 
  3. Carefully watching the F2’s reactions are also important.
    • BU should begin his reactions to the steal as the ball is about to be caught by F2.  BU must be aware of the fact that the ball may be hit or that a check swing is possible, and therefore he must be careful not to take his focus away the plate area too soon.  He must also keep in mind the count on the batter and whether PU calls the pitch a ball or a strike (for example, on 3-1 or 3-2 counts). 
    • PU will watch for the batter interfering with F2’s throw to 2nd.  If it is questionable as to whether or not the batter interfered with F2’s throw, it is permissible for PU to call and signal, “That’s nothing” (arms extended in a safe mechanic), indicating there was no interference on the play (this is an optional mechanic and is not required). 

    2.3.3 – Positioning Mechanics for R1 Stealing 2nd (see Diagram 2.3.3):

    • BU starts the steal mechanic by making a “drop-step” towards 2nd base from his original starting position.
    • BU keeps his eye on the ball and does not turn his back on the ball. 
    • As F2 throws the ball to 2nd base, BU should continue to move towards 2nd again keeping in mind he must not turn his back on the ball.  After the ball is thrown to 2nd base, PU will simply observe the play, not leaving the plate area other than perhaps swinging out a few feet to his left to watch the play.  (If the throw gets away at 2nd base and R1decides to try for 3rd, the play at 3rd base would belong to the BU.  PU would remain at home.)
    • BU lets the ball turn him into the play as the throw reaches and passes him (BU should more or less be “pivoting” on his right foot as the throw passes him). 
    • BU will turn and focus on the play, keeping in mind that by this time he should be in proper position and angle for the play at 2nd (ideally a step or two to the home plate side of the 2nd base cutout). 
    • It is imperative that BU be completely set and not moving for this play.


    Diagram 2.3.3: R1 stealing 2nd base

    2.3.4 – Coverage for a “Broken” Play with R1 Stealing 2nd (The ball gets away and rolls towards the outfield):

    • Should the ball get away at 2nd base and roll towards the outfield, BU must be prepared to move into position for a possible play at 3rd base if R1 decides to go. 
    • BU must also keep his eye on the original play at 2nd base, watching for possible obstruction. 
    • As R1 is getting up and deciding to try for 3rd, BU should cut towards the “imaginary” 45 ft. line on the 3rd base foul line, making sure that BU stays in front of R1 and that he keeps his eye on the play for any possible obstruction. 
    • He must glance at the location of the ball and then glance back at R1 so as to “key” off the reactions of R1. 
    • Should BU see R1 commit to 3rd on this play, BU should quickly break roughly towards the cutout at 3rd, moving in the direction of an “imaginary” 45-foot line along the 3rd base line. 
    • It is imperative on this play that BU NOT run parallel to the baseline with R1.  This almost certainly results in R1 beating BU to 3rd and BU looking up the back end of the play at 3rd – a terrible position to evaluate the play. 
    • Should a play be made on R1 at 3rd base, BU must also come to a stop and be completely set for the play.


    Diagram 2.3.4: Steal at 2nd base; throw goes into center field on a “broken” and R1 advances to 3rd.

    2.4 – Ground Balls to the Infield with R1 on 1st Base

    2.4.1 – PU Mechanics on a Ground Ball to the Infield with R1 at 1st (Not Rolling up Either Base Line):

    • PU will swing out from behind the plate a few feet into foul territory in the direction of 3rd base. 
    • PU will be moving towards 3rd base in case R1 should attempt 3rd on the play, in which case the play at 3rd base would belong to PU.
    • Should the ground ball develop into a double-play situation, as soon as the lead runner is declared out at 2nd base, PU will stop his movement in the direction of 3rd base and will immediately retreat in one of two ways to take his usual responsibilities with a ground ball with no one on base. 
    • PU may either: (See Diagram 2.4.5) 
    1. retreat straight back down the 3rd base foul line towards home plate so that he is looking up the 1st base foul line as the play is being made at 1st base;
    2. Or, he may cut straight across the infield grass towards the 1st base foul line so that he again will have a view of the play at 1st base looking up the 1st base foul line. Either method is acceptable.

    • There are three reasons for having PU come up the line.  PU will be responsible for Primary/Secondary Responsibilities:
    1. PU will be watching for interference by BR while out of the 45-foot lane.  Should PU see such an infraction, he should make the call.  This is not to say, however, that BU may never make such a call.  For example, if BU observes BR interfere with the play at 1st base while clearly out of the 45-foot lane, it is of course permissible for BU to make this call also.
    2. PU will be ready for any overthrows at 1st base.  If PU sees the ball being overthrown at 1st base, he will immediately and rapidly move with the overthrow and take responsibility for the ball going out of play.
    3. PU is also in position to help on “swipe tags” on BR at 1st base.  Although this is rarely used, it is permissible for BU to ask for help on a “swipe tag” on this play – if, for some reason, BU does not have a good look at the play.  (Note that the “appeal” should be initiated by BU immediately and before a confrontation with a player or manager occurs.)  The terminology by BU would be, “Bill, did he tag him?” or “Bill, do you have a tag?” while pointing to PU.  The response by PU would be a very emphatic, “Yes! He’s out on the tag!” or “No! He missed him!” while using a strong visual signal. 
  • 2.4.2 – PU’s Mechanics with a Ground Ball Rolling up Either Base Line and R1 on 1st :

    • If the Ball is Up the 3rd Base Line:
    1. PU must come out from behind the plate and be prepared to make a fair/foul decision on the ball rolling up the line. 
    2. If PU points the ball fair and the ball is then thrown to 1st base, he will then continue up the 3rd base line towards 3rd base and assume responsibility of R1 coming from 1st to 3rd (See Diagram 2.4.2-a)
    3. If the same ball is fielded and thrown to 2nd base forcing out R1 – PU would retreat to the 1st base foul line as described above (2.4.1).
    • If the Ball is Up the 1st Base Line:
    1. PU will come up the 1st base line for the decision as well as for taking responsibility of tag/no tag on BR up to the 45-foot line. 
    2. PU will stay on the line and WILL NOT assume responsibility of R1 from 1st to 3rd (See Diagram 2.4.2-b).  (BU in this case assumes that responsibility.) 
    3. PU should communicate with BU on this type of play (i.e., ground ball up the 1st base line) by saying, “I’m on the line, Bill!” although this must be done with some care so that the infielders are not confused by PU’s communication. 
    4. BU should be aware that if the ball is rolling up the 1st base line, PU will be taking responsibility for the fair/foul and will NOT be able to take the usual R1 from 1st to 3rd coverage.  This makes it very difficult for BU on the occasions when the play is made at 1st with a following (and usually very close) play at 3rd. 
    5. Also note that this same mechanic (i.e., PU staying with the ball and remaining on the 1st base line to watch for interference out of the three-foot lane, overthrows, etc.) would also be used on a ground ball fielded in the general vicinity of home plate with R1 on 1st base only in addition to those hit up the 1st base line.
    6. BU will step up and turn with the ball, facing the fielder as he is fielding the ball.  With less than two out, the double play is in order, and BU must react with good anticipation as to how the play will develop.  If BU reads that a double-play attempt will occur, BU would use the double-play mechanic described next.

  • Diagram 2.4.2-a: Slow roller up 3rd base line (2 out or hit-and-run); play at 1st base and subsequent play at 3rd


    Diagram 2.4.2-b: Ground ball up 1st base line with play at 1st base and subsequent play at 3rd

    2.4.3 – BU Mechanics with a Ground Ball to the Infield with R1 on 1st (Not a “Normal” Double Play):   

    • As the ball is being originally fielded, BU must recognize that there are several possibilities other than the double play that could occur in this situation (the ball being fielded and thrown directly to 1st base instead of 2nd; the ball being fielded by F4 and a possible tag on R1; the ball getting past the infielder and going into the outfield, etc.) 
    • It is important that BU not “drift” too far from his original position and that he let the ball take him to the play.  Example, if F4 muffs the ball to begin with and it becomes apparent that his only play is at 1st base, as BU recognizes this he should then move several steps in the direction of the 1st base foul line for his “only” play - 1st base. 
    • After the initial play at 1st base, BU must be aware of potential plays elsewhere and immediately and rapidly “bounce” back to the other runner after the initial play is completed-always keeping the ball in front of him. 
    • BU must also keep in mind that PU may be covering 3rd base on a potential R1 from 1st-to-3rd play (PU would communicate loudly that he has 3rd in this situation).


    Diagram 2.4.3-a: Bunted ball in the “imaginary box”.


    Diagram 2.4.3-b: Ground ball up 1st base line with play at 1st base and subsequent play at 3rd (a "reverse double play")

    2.4.4 – 2nd-to-1st “Normal” Double-Play Mechanic with R1 on 1st (see Diagram 2.4.4):

    • BU will step up, turn with the ball, and face it while taking three (3) aggressive steps towards the back of the pitcher’s mound (This technique is called “step-up, turn and face the ball” and will be referred to many times throughout this manual).
    • As the ball is being thrown to 2nd base, BU positions his feet and “opens the gate” toward the 45 foot mark early by angling his feet that direction while twisting and turning his head & shoulders square to the play at 2nd. 
    • BU obtains a standing set** position ready to move when the middle infielder receives the throw and shows his release.  Determine safe/out of R1 from a momentary standing set position.  Turn slightly (chest to right field corner); observe the remaining action at 2nd base as you move toward the 45 foot mark on the 1st base line.  While taking a step or two, use this as an artificial timing mechanism to force continued reading of the turn man’s release of the ball. 
    • Then display and voice the result of the play while continuing to move into position for the play at 1st base (the back end of the double play. (Normally BU will go as far as the play will allow, usually 3 to 4 aggressive steps) and prepare for the play to 1st.  (Individual agility and speed will determine how many steps are possible). 
    • Let the relay throw turn BU’s upper body toward 1st base and begin settling into a set position as the throw passes BU on it’s way to 1st base.
    • BU should be completely stopped and set ** for each play.  It is also important that BU NOT drift towards 1st base more than a step or two as the ball is originally fielded and thrown to 2nd base so as not to reduce the angle for the play at 2nd base when it occurs.  (The reasoning here is to have BU remain in good position for potential “problems” at 2nd base, including, but not limited to: bobbled balls, dropped balls, close plays, possible interference, etc.).

    NOTE: In games played under pro rules, do not call obstruction/interference at 2nd base unless your partner asks your opinion.  It is his responsibility and it is almost impossible to see the action from more than 100 feet away.

    **The intent of the word “set” as it appears here is that the umpire will come to a complete stop, facing the play, and be in a ready position to make the call not necessarily with hands on knees unless so specified in this manual.


    Diagram 2.4.4: “Normal” Double-play mechanic with R1 on 1st base only – Note PU’s options after R1 is retired at 2nd base.

    2.5 – Fly Balls and Line Drives to the Infield with R1 on 1st Base

    2.5.1 – Responsibilities for a Fly Ball or Line Drive to the Infield with R1 on 1st:  (See Diagram 2.5.1):

    • PU is responsible for all fly balls and line drives to F1. 
    • PU will take all fly balls fielded by F2. 
    • PU is also responsible for either F3 or F5 are moving towards the foul line.
    • BU is responsible for all other fly balls and line drives to the infield.


    Diagram 2.5.1: Fly ball and line drive responsibilities to the infield with R1 on 1st base only.
       
       
    2.5.2 – PU’s Mechanics When a Fly Ball or Line Drive Is Hit to the Infield with R1 on 1st:

    • When the fly ball is hit, PU should swing out from home plate a few feet into foul territory in the direction of 3rd base to observe the play (unless the ball is hit near the foul lines). 
    • If the fly ball is hit near the 3rd base line, PU will straddle the line to make the call. 
    • PU continues to have responsibility for R1 coming from 1st to 3rd if the ball should be dropped.  
    • If the fly ball is hit up the 1st base line, PU will again straddle the line, and it would be a good idea for him to communicate to his partner, “I’m on the line!”  On the rare occasion when the ball would be dropped and R1 continues on to 3rd, PU would not have responsibility for that play (for example with two out and runner on the move).
    • PU’s positioning on line drives to the infield would be the same as just mentioned for fly balls with the exception that it is permissible to move out in front of the plate for line drives back to F1.

    2.5.3 – BU’s Mechanics When a Fly Ball or Line Drive Is Hit to the Infield with R1 on 1st (see Diagram 2.5.3):

    • BU will step up and turn with the ball and face the infielder.
    • BU will glance back over his shoulder at 1st base as necessary to watch BR touch 1st base. 
    • It is permissible for BU to take a couple steps backward towards the mound (“step up, turn & face the ball”) to open up the field of play as the fly ball is hit. 
    • If the infielder is moving in to make the play, BU may have to move several steps – including to either side of the mound – in order to give the fielder room to make the play. 
    • BU must guard against taking himself completely out of position or positioning in any potential “throwing lane” in case the ball should be dropped. 
    • If the ball is caught, BU has responsibility for any play at 3rd base on R3 on 3rd. 
    • If the ball is dropped, BU has responsibility for all plays at 1st, 2nd and 3rd.


    Diagram 2.5.3: On a routine fly ball to F6 (caught) with R1 on 1st base only, BU must guard against taking himself completely out of position or positioning within the “throwing lane” in case the ball should be dropped.

    2.5.4 – Remember to Vary Intensity of Voice & Signal:

    • If the fly ball is a “routine” catch, the umpire need not call or signal anything. 
    • However, if the catch turns out to be a “difficult” play, the umpire would sell the call as needed.

    2.6 – Fly Balls and Line Drives to the Outfield with R1 on 1st Base

    2.6.1 – Responsibilities for a Fly Ball or Line Drive to the Outfield with R1 on 1st (See Diagram 2.6.1):

    • Fly balls (or line drives) from F7 straight in all the way to F9 straight in (sometimes referred to as the “80%” or the “V”) belong to the base umpire (BU). 
    • Fly balls (or line drives) where F7 moves any distance towards the left field line - his right - (sometimes referred to as the “10%”) belong to the plate umpire (PU). 
    • Fly balls (or line drives) where F9 moves any distance towards the right field line - his left - (sometimes referred to as the “10%”) belong to the plate umpire (PU).

    Important Note: It is important that the two umpires communicate after the ball is hit on fly balls and line drives to the outfield, particularly when balls are hit to F7 or F9.  The reason here is so that each umpire is certain who has responsibility for any given fly ball or line drive to the outfield.


    Diagram 2.6.1: Outfield fly ball and line drive responsibilities with R1 on 1st base only – This coverage is sometimes referred to as “80% - 20%”” or “the cone” fly ball coverage.

    2.6.2 – Fly Ball or Line Drive to the Outfield with R1 on 1st :

    • Both umpires will need to look at the outfielders in order to determine who has responsibility for the ball as described in Section 2.6.1.
    • BU will step up, turn with the ball, and back up only two or three steps towards the mound to open up the playing field. 
    • (NOTE: We call this area behind the mound the “working area” for BU.  From this “working area” he is in good position for observing his responsibilities and for moving into proper position as plays develop.)  When BU has multiple runner responsibilities, if no play develops after the base hit, BU should maintain his basic position in this “working area” and not be drawn unnecessarily towards a base without a potential play developing there.
    • “Pause-Read-React” Technique: BU should use the “pause-read-react” technique to allow the play to develop and reveal enough information to determine whether the play is a “trouble” play or not.  After the ball has been determined to belong to BU (the ball is batted to BU’s outfield coverage area), BU will:
    1. “Pause” (hesitate momentarily to gather information about the developing play)
    2. “Read” (focus his attention on the reactions of the outfielder(s) by  taking his eye off the ball, zeroing in on the of the outfielders movements,  “keying” off the outfielders reactions, and watching for–and determining if the outfielder’s reactions reflect “trouble” or reflect ”trouble” cues)
    3. “React” (remain in the “working area” on “routine” outfielder reactions or “go out” on “trouble” reactions to the ball by going to the edge if the infield grass, but never leaving it). 
    • “Difficult” plays are defined as home runs; balls hit off the outfield wall; diving catches; catches made by the outfield below his waist on a dead run; catches made with fielders converging on the ball; catches by the outfielder with his back towards the infield; catches made by the outfielder at the wall or on the warning track; etc.

  • 2.6.3 – “Routine” Outfield Fly Ball or Line Drive to BU’s Responsibility Area with R1 on 1st:
    If the fly ball or line drive belongs to BU and after using the “pause-read-react” technique he determines that the play will be “routine” (see Diagram 2.6.3):

    • BU will back up only two or three steps towards the mound in order to open up the playing field and observe the catch.  (NOTE: We call this area behind the mound the “working area” for BU.  From the “working area” BU is in good position for observing his responsibilities and for moving into proper position as plays develop.) 
    • If the catch is “routine”, BU need not call or signal anything.


    Diagram 2.6.3: “Routine” fly ball to the middle of the outfield (caught) with R1 on 1st base only.

    2.6.4 – “Difficult” Outfield Fly Ball or Line Drive to BU’s Responsibility Area with R1 on 1st: If the fly ball or line drive belongs to BU and after using the “pause-read-react” technique he determines that the play will be “difficult” (for a definition of “difficult” plays, see Section 2.6.2)

    • If BU feels there may be a play on the ball, BU will not go out on the ball as he did with no one on base.  BU will move to the edge of the infield grass in the direction the ball is hit to make the call (see Diagram 2.6.4)
    • If the fly ball or line drive results in a “difficult” play, BU will render the call emphatically both verbally and visually (“sell” the call).
    • Then, immediately move back quickly (“bounce” back) towards the other runner(s) in order to pick up responsibilities for them.
    • PU will swing out from behind the plate moving up the 3rd base line to the “library” (mid-way up the line and 3-6 feet in foul territory). 
    • If the ball is not caught and PU feels that there is a good likelihood of a play going into 3rd base on R1, PU will move into the cutout at 3rd and communicate loudly to his partner “I’ve got 3rd, Bill! I’ve got 3rd!” PU also has 1st-to-3rd responsibility in this situation (PU will be prepared to move into the cutout at 3rd only if the ball is not caught and a play at 3rd base is imminent) (see Diagrams 2.6.5-a & 2.6.5-b) (also see Section 2.7)
    • If the fly ball is caught, BU will have responsibility for any play back into 1st base. **
    • BU has responsibility for tag-ups at 1st base as well as for all touches at 1st and 2nd. 
    • BU has responsibility for the touch at 3rd base by BR.   PU will “drift” back towards home. 
    • PU has responsibility for the touch of 3rd by R1 and all touches of home plate.  (See Diagram 2.6.5-a) 


    Diagram 2.6.4: BR flies to the middle of the outfield – “trouble” ball

    2.6.5 – “Difficult” Fly Ball or Line Drive Down the Right Field Line in PU’s Area with R1 on 1st: If the fly ball or line drive belongs to PU (i.e., the fly ball or line drive causes either F7 or F9 to move any distance towards the left or right field foul line) (see Diagram 2.6.5-a & 2.6.5-b):

    • PU MUST communicate with his partner that PU has responsibility for the ball.
    • PU will communicate to his partner, “I’m on the line, Bill!” to indicate that he is taking the ball. 
    • This terminology will indicate to BU that PU will NOT have the normal 1st-to-3rd responsibilities on this play. 
    • BU will assume responsibilities for all plays at 1st, 2nd, and 3rd on both runners. 
    • PU will move up the 1st base line as far as he deems necessary to rule on the ball – keeping in mind, of course, that he may have to come back to the plate for a possible play there.  
    • PU will come to a stop to see the play and make the call, and will either stay with the ball (if it appears the ball may go out of play); OR bounce back home immediately after rendering the decision (if it is apparent the ball will not go out of play). 
    • PU will keep his eye on the ball since the ball is his responsibility in this situation. 
    • PU must never go so far down the line that he does not have ample time to return to the plate and set up in proper position for any potential play at the plate.


    Diagram 2.6.5-a: PU taking ball to right field with R1 on 1st base only


    Diagram 2.6.5-b: F9 moves toward the line on a “trouble” ball

    2.6.6 – “Difficult” Fly Ball or Line Drive Down the Left Field Line in PU’s Area with R1 on 1st (if the ball causes F7 to move any distance towards the left field line):

    • PU will take the ball and communicate loudly to his partner, “I’ve got the ball, Bill!” or “That’s my ball, Bill!” 
    • PU will move up the 3rd base line as far as he deems necessary to rule on the play, come to a complete stop, and make the call. 
    • After making the call on the fly ball, PU will react to development of the play.
    1. If the ball is not caught and PU feels that there is a good likelihood of a play going into 3rd base on R1, he will move into the cutout at 3rd and communicate loudly to his partner “I’ve got 3rd, Bill! I’ve got 3rd!”PU also has 1st-to-3rd responsibility in this situation (PU will be prepared to move into the cutout at 3rd only if the ball is not caught and a play at 3rd base is imminent) (see Diagrams 2.6.5-a & 2.6.5-b) (also see Section 2.7). 
    2. If the fly ball is caught, BU will have responsibility for any play back into 1st base. ** BU has responsibility for tag-ups at 1st base as well as for all touches at 1st and 2nd.  BU has responsibility for the touch at 3rd base by BR.   PU will “drift” back towards home.  PU has responsibility for the touch of 3rd by R1 and all touches of home plate.  (See Diagram 2.6.5-a) 

    Important Note: In situations where R1 starts to advance towards 2nd base on a fly ball and then retreats towards 1st base, should BR pass R1 in the vicinity of 1st base, the responsibility of this infraction would belong to the plate umpire (PU).

    **NOTE: There are certain situations with R1 on 1st base only when experienced crews have an option in the coverage at 1st base after a catch in the outfield.  Specifically, if the defense attempts to throw out R1after the catch, under some circumstances it is permissible (for experienced crews only) to have PU cover the play at 1st base.  For example, if R1 is stealing on the play and the fly ball is down the right field line, it is permissible for the PU to take the play back into 1st base after the catch provided the crew has predetermined this and provided there is loud, clear communication between the umpires.  There are also other situations with R1 only when PU could similarly cover the play back into 1st base, but again, this mechanic is to be used by experienced crews only.


    Diagram 2.6.6-a: PU taking fly ball to left field (caught) with R1 on 1st base only (not tagging).


    Diagram 2.6.6-b: F7 moves toward the line on a “trouble” ball

    2.6.7 – Remember: The First Priority – Watching the Ball:

    • IT IS VERY IMPORTANT TO NOTE AGAIN THAT IN FLY BALL COVERAGE, THE FIRST PRIORITY IS THE BALL. 
    • There could be an occasion when BU may miss BR touching 1st base because he had to keep his eye on the ball. 
    • There may also be a time when BU does not have the best look at the tag-up at 1st because he had to move to the edge of the grass for a “difficult” catch in the outfield. 
    • This is simply a drawback of the two-umpire system. 

    2.7 – Base Hit to the Outfield with R1 on 1st Base

    2.7.1 – Responsibilities on an “Obvious” (“Clean”) Base Hit to the Outfield with R1 on 1st:

    • BU has the responsibility of the touch at 2nd base by R1 as well as the touch of 1st base by BR. 

    2.7.2 – Mechanics on an “Obvious” (“Clean”) Base Hit to the Outfield with R1 on 1st (R1–to–3rd Base Play) (i.e., No Possible Fair/Foul or Catch/No Catch) (See diagram 2.7.2-a & 2.7.2-d):

    • PU will come out from behind home plate in the direction of 3rd base, keeping approximately three to six feet into foul territory as he moves down the 3rd base line. 
    • As PU leaves the cutout area at home plate, if he observes that a possibility exists of a play into 3rd on R1, PU will make an initial communication to his partner, “I’ve got 3rd if he comes!” – alerting his partner to the possibility of a “1st-to-3rd“play.
    • PU proceeds to the “library” and reads the play development from there.
    • If PU sees there will be no possible play going into 3rd on R1 [indicating that R1 will either (1) hold up at 2nd; or (2) will easily attain 3rd base with no play on him – and instead the possibility exists of a play at the plate on R1],
    1. PU will retreat back towards home in foul territory and communicate to his partner, “Going home, Bill!   Going home!” at the moment he recognizes no play will occur going into 3rd base. 
    • If PU sees that there is a good possibility for a play into 3rd (both ball and runner are coming into 3rd base and a play is imminent),
    1. PU will communicate to BU as he moves from the ‘library” into the cutout at 3rd. “I’ve got 3rd!“ “I’ve got 3rd!” 
    2. At that point PU should immediately get into position for the play into 3rd, obtaining proper distance and angle for the play. 
    3. PU should be completely set at the cutout and waiting for the play (ball and runner), NOT timing his arrival so that he is getting set as the play is about to occur. 
    4. o In getting into position for the play, PU should initially square his body towards 3rd base as he sets for the play and watch the ball by turning his head.
    5. If R1 is declared out at 3rd base, PU will pivot out of the cutout and head back to home plate in foul territory, keeping the ball in front of him and his eye on the ball. 
    6. If R1 is safe at 3rd, PU will again keep his eye on the ball, and after the ball is thrown to F1 he will pivot out of the cutout, come across the 3rd base foul line into foul territory, and head back to home plate. 
    • If the ball is overthrown at 3rd base (so that R1 may get up and start home),
    1. PU will stay in fair territory and take responsibility of R1 going home. 
    2. PU should turn with the ball, keep his eye on the ball, pivot out of the cutout at 3rd with his left leg opening up towards home and move in fair territory in the direction of the home plate cutout, staying, off of the foul line so as not to interfere with the runner’s progress. 
    3. Should a play develop at the plate, PU will be set in fair territory (usually in front of the plate) with proper distance and angle for the play. 
    4. BU will be with BR – his only runner at this time.


    Diagram 2.7.2-a: PU reads the developing play action from the “library” as it continues to evolve – in this case, R1 rounds 2nd & holds at there.


    Diagram 2.7.2-b: Clean base hit to right field with R1 on 1st base only; play at 3rd base, and BR holding up at 1st


    Diagram 2.7.2-c: On an extra base hit to the outfield with R1 on 1st base only – R1 advances to 3rd with no play, rounds and may try to score.


    Diagram 2.7.2-d: Base hit with R1 on 1st base only - Play at 3rd on R1 – and ball overthrown.  Runner goes home and BR advances to 3rd.

    2.7.3 – Staying within the "Working Area":

    • As the ball is being thrown to the infield with multiple runners on base, BU should not “drift” (or commit) unnecessarily towards a base. 
    • BU should let the ball take him to the play
    • If no play develops (or is anticipated) on the bases, he would basically maintain his position within the "working area." 
    • Only when BU anticipates the potential for a play should he move out of the "working area" and into a position for his play. 
    • This is an important concept and mechanic and applies to all situations when more than one runner is on base -not just with R1 and BR.

    2.7.4 – Summary of Important Concepts of 1st – to – 3rd Mechanics with R1 on 1st Base (See diagram 2.7.2-a & 2.7.2-d):

    • While the ball is in the outfield, PU will have to make an important decision.  He must instinctively "read" the play - taking into consideration the location of the ball, the reactions and positioning of R1 rounding 2nd base, and the position and reactions of the outfielder – and so determine the likelihood of a play at 3rd base on R1. 
    • If PU sees there will be no possible play going into 3rd on R1 [indicating that R1 will either (1) hold up at 2nd; or (2) will easily attain 3rd base with no play on him – and instead the possibility exists of a play at the plate on R1], PU will retreat back towards home in foul territory and communicate to his partner, “Going home, Bill!   Going home!” at the moment he recognizes no play will occur going into 3rd base. 
    • If PU observes that R1 has committed to 3rd and that a play at 3rd base is likely (or in fact, imminent), PU will cut into fair territory somewhere between halfway and three-quarters of the way to 3rd, break quickly (“bust”) towards the cutout at 3rd, and communicate loudly to his partner, "I've got 3rd, Bill!  I’ve got 3rd!”  (Note that in going down the 3rd base line, PU must also watch for F1 coming across the foul line to back up the play at 3rd.) 
    • When BU – who at this point has simply backed up two or three steps towards the pitcher’s mound (into the “working area”) to observe the play and watch the runners touch their bases – hears PU communicate, “I’ve got 3rd!” he will then transfer responsibility of R1 to PU.  At that point BU will start to “slide” over to the 1st base side and pick up BR, who at this point becomes his only runner. 
    • If BR rounds 1st and commits to 2nd, BU will quickly move towards the 2nd base cutout. 
    • If BR rounds 1st and holds up there, BU will “slide” still closer towards the 1st base cutout – but he will not go all the way back to the cutout in case R1 should happen to get into a rundown between 3rd and 2nd.  (And should a rundown develop between 2nd and 3rd, the rundown would belong to BU except for the cutout at 3rd, which is covered by PU.) 

  • Groups:

    Syndicate

    Syndicate content

    Recent comments

    Who's online

    There are currently 0 users and 2 guests online.

    Who's new

    • eddycavill771682349
    • Teamgene
    • Chris Daniels
    • darin gressman
    • Howard L. Burne...