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Section 3.0 – R3 on 3rd & R1 on 1st Bases

Section 3.0 – R3 on 3rd & R1 on 1st Bases

3.1 – General Positioning – Starting Position “B” with R3 on 3rd & R1 on 1st Bases

3.1.1 – BU’s Starting Position with R3 on 3rd & R1 on 1st: (see Diagram 3.1.1):
* BU will position on the 1st base side of the infield 
* BU will position midway himself between the back edge of the grass of the pitcher’s mound and the 2nd base cutout
* BU should position himself so that if an “imaginary line” were drawn from home plate through the right edge of the pitcher’s mound towards 2nd base, BU would be straddling that line. 
* BU’s body should be squared to the edge of home plate. 
* This position is often referred to as Starting Position “B” (See Diagram 3.1.1)

Important Notes:
* The positioning just described refers to fields where the grass lines are as recommended the Official Rules and as shown in Diagram 3.1.1.  BU will have to adjust accordingly on fields which vary from this standard.
* With R3 and R1 on bases, BU will position himself in starting position “B” exactly in the same manner as with R1on 1st base only.
* Starting positioning “B” with R3 on 3rd & R1 on 1st base is very important, and BU should make sure not to position too deep towards 2nd base when assuming starting position “B”. 
* If BU is positioned midway between the mound and 2nd base as described above, he will be in a good starting position for pick-offs as well as for double plays.

Diagram 3.1.1: Starting position “B” with R3 and R1 on bases

3.2 – Pick-Offs and Rundowns with R3 on 3rd & R1 on 1st Bases

3.2.1 – Proper Starting Position Essential for Pick-Offs at 3rd or 1st Bases (see Diagram 3.1.1): 
* It is very important that BU assume the proper starting position “B” in the middle of the infield with R3 & R1 on bases.  This starting position is particularly critical when it comes to pick-offs at 1st base because if BU is too “deep” towards 2nd base to start with, he will never be able to get a proper angle for the pick-off at 1st base and will end up looking up the back end of the play at 1st. 

3.2.2 – Pick-Offs with R3 on 3rd and R1 on 1st:
* F1 Attempts a Pick-Off at 3rd:
o BU must be in proper starting position “C” in the middle of the infield (not too deep towards 2nd base, not too close to the mound). 
o As F1 begins his throw to 3rd base, BU may use either of the following two procedures:
* BU will take a quick step forward with his right foot, moving in the direction on an “imaginary” 45-foot line along the 3rd base line.  After taking this initial step forward, BU will turn (pivoting on his right foot), face the play and set for the call.
* BU will take two quick steps forward starting with his left foot, moving in the direction of an “imaginary” 45-foot line along the 3rd base line.  After taking two steps forward (right followed by left), BU will turn (pivoting on his right foot), face the play and set for the call.
* Note: The preceding two techniques are very similar; the basic difference being which foot begins the pick-off move and how many steps are taken.  Either of the preceding two techniques is acceptable in covering pick-offs at 3rd base.
o Angle is critical for pick-offs – BU shall move towards an “imaginary” 45-foot line along the 3rd base line.
o BU’s body should be facing the play and in a set position for this play. 
o It is imperative that BU be completely stopped and set for the pick-off. 
* F2 Attempts Pick-Off at 3rd:
o It is possible that F2 may try to pick off R3 at 3rd base with a quick throw following a pitch. 
o BU’s movements would be virtually the same as just described for a pick-off move by F1.
* F1 Attempts a Pick-Off on R1 at 1st (see Diagram 3.2.2-a):
o BU should focus on F1 prior to the pick-off.
o As BU sees F1 begin to throw to 1st base in a pick-off attempt, there are two acceptable methods of covering the play.  These two methods differ only in the steps taken by BU as he moves into position for the play, and either of the following two procedures is acceptable:
* BU will take a quick step forward with his left foot, moving in the direction of the 45-foot line.  After taking this initial step forward, BU will turn (pivoting on his left foot), face the play, and set for the call.
* BU will take two quick steps forward starting with his right foot, moving in the direction of the 45-foot line.  After taking two steps forward (right followed by left), BU will turn (pivoting on his left foot), face the play, and set for the call. 
Important Notes:
o The preceding two techniques are very similar; the basic difference being how much time is available and how much distance may be gained during the pick-off move.  The second alternative allows BU to take one extra steps towards the 45-foot line before turning and facing the play.  Always use the time available wisely and position to see the play well.
o The pick-off from F1 takes little time and means BU has very little time to react, step and set.  Two steps on this pick is about all that can be achieved realistically.
* F2 Attempts Pick-Offs at 1st (see Diagram 3.2.2-b): It is possible that F2 may try to pick off R1at 1st base with a quick throw following a pitch.  If this should happen, BU’s movements would be virtually the same as just described for a pick-off move by F1.
o BU will read F2’s movements preparing to throw the ball to 1st base after the pitch cresses the plate and is caught
o BU will anticipate the throw by starting to move in the direction of the 45-foot line. 
o BU will take two or more quick cross-over steps forward starting with his left foot
o BU will move as far as the play will allow.
o After taking several steps forward, BU will turn (pivoting on his left foot),
o Face the play, and set for the call just before the tag is applied.

Important Note:
* The pick-off from F2 takes longer to develop and gives BU more time to gain ground, develop angle and position for the play.  The key is to read F2 receive the pitch, step towards 1st, react immediately by moving toward the 45 foot line, gain as much ground as the play will permit while getting set before the tag is applied on R1 at 1st base.

Diagram 3.2.2-a: Pitcher or catcher attempts pick-off attempt at 3rd base with R3 & R1 on bases

Diagram 3.2.2-b: Pitcher or catcher attempts pickoff at first base

3.2.3 – Rundowns with R3 between 3rd and Home or R1 between 1st an 2nd:
* Rundown on R3 at 3rd between 3rd and Home with R1 also at 1st:
o If the rundown occurs between 3rd and home, BU will cover the initial throw and subsequent throws at the 3rd base end of the rundown only until PU is able to get into position to assume responsibility for the entire rundown. 
o As soon as PU is able to get into position, PU will assume responsibility for the entire rundown, and he would communicate to his partner, “I’ve got it all, Bill! I’ve got it all!” 
o At that point BU would “drift” back in the direction of R1 originally on 1st base, assuming responsibility of R1. 
o Only in the unlikely event that R1advances al the way to 3rd base during the rundown would BU then help out with the original rundown between 3rd and home, then communicating with his partner, “I’ve got this half, Bill! I’ve got this half!”
* Rundown on R1 at 1st between 1st and 2nd with R3 also at 3rd:
o BU would handle this responsibility alone. 
o PU would remain at home, being alert for any play to develop on R3 from 3rd base attempting to score. 
o BU must be alert to the possibility that the rundown between 1st and 2nd may end abruptly with a following play on the runner on 3rd base (in the vicinity of 3rd). 
o A Subsequent plat at 3rd on R3 is also BU’s responsibility, and he must therefore show excellent reactions, anticipation, and agility in his positioning and mechanics should this situation arise.  BU must also be aware of possibly positioning in the “throwing lane” to 3rd base.

Diagram 3.2.3-a: With R1 on base while R3 is in a rundown between 3rd and Home, BU’s rundown coverage begins with any play on R3 in the 3rd base “cutout”.  PU then covers all plays from the 3rd base “cutout” to home plate.

Diagram 3.2.3-b: With R1 on base while R3 is in a rundown between 3rd and Home, once PU communicates, “I’ve got it all,” BU drifts back and prepares for any play on R1.

Diagram 3.2.3-c: R3 on base while R1 is in a rundown between 1st and 2nd bases

3.3 – Steals with R3 on 3rd & R1 on 1st Bases

3.3.1 –  Starting Position and “Situation Awareness” Lead to Superior Play Positioning and Anticipation:
* Successful Coverage Starts Before the Play with R3 Stealing Home or R1 Stealing 2nd:
o It is important that BU has established a good original starting position “B” in the middle of the infield-one that will be advantageous for both steals as well as pick-offs (see Section 3.1.1).
o BU should be adept at recognizing that R1 is stealing through being alert and picking up on certain actions and cues on the field.  (BU should be able to pick up the initial movements of the runner breaking to 2nd base through his peripheral vision, even though his eyes are still focused on the plate.  Also, BU should react to the defense’s exclamation, “Going!” as the runner breaks for 2nd base.  Carefully watching the F2’s reactions is also important.)
* “Situation Awareness” – Many Possible Plays Evolve from Steals with R3 & R1 on Bases:
o BU must let the ball take him to the play and react accordingly.
o If R1 on 1st attempts to steal 2nd base and F2 throws the ball directly to 2nd, this play would be handled in the manner described in Section 3.3.3 & shown in Diagram 3.3.3.
o If R1 on 1st is stealing, it is possible for F2 to throw the ball to F6 (or F4), who comes in to cut off the throw, attempting to catch R3 at 3rd off guard at 3rd or attempting to score on the throw.
o It is also possible that F2 may fake a throw towards 2nd base, followed by a snap throw directly to 3rd. 
o If the play is actually made at 2nd base, then BU must immediately “bounce” back towards R3 on 3rd. 
o Should the ball get loose at 2nd base and roll into centerfield, BU would be prepared to react to the development of this play as well (see Section 3.3.4 & Diagram 3.3.4 ).
o All these plays require excellent reactions on the part of BU. 

3.3.2 – Reading the Steal Beginning with R3 on 3rd & R1 Stealing 2nd (see Diagram 3.3.2):
* BU should begin his reactions to the steal as the ball is about to be thrown by F2.  BU must be aware of the fact that the ball may be hit,  that a check swing is possible, or one of the other plays listed in Section 6.3.1 could occur and therefore he must be careful not to take his focus away the plate area too soon.  He must also keep in mind the count on the batter and whether PU calls the pitch a ball or a strike (for example, on 3-1 or 3-2 counts). 
* PU will watch for the batter interfering with F2’s throw to 2nd.  If it is questionable as to whether or not the batter interfered with F2’s throw, it is permissible for PU to call and signal, “That’s nothing” (arms extended in a safe mechanic), indicating there was no interference on the play (this is an optional mechanic and is not required). 

3.3.3 – Positioning Mechanics for R1 Stealing 2nd:
* BU starts the steal mechanic by making a “drop-step” towards 2nd base from his original starting position.
* BU keeps his eye on the ball and does not turn his back on the ball. 
* As F2 throws the ball to 2nd base, BU should continue to move towards 2nd again keeping in mind he must not turn his back on the ball.  After the ball is thrown to 2nd base, PU will simply observe the play, not leaving the plate area other than perhaps swinging out a few feet to his left to watch the play.  (If the throw gets away at 2nd base and R1decides to try for 3rd, the play at 3rd base would belong to the BU.  PU would remain at home.)
* BU lets the ball turn him into the play as the throw reaches and passes him (BU should more or less be “pivoting” on his right foot as the throw passes him). 
* BU will turn and focus on the play, keeping in mind that by this time he should be in proper position and angle for the play at 2nd (ideally a step or two to the home plate side of the 2nd base cutout). 
* It is imperative that BU be completely set and not moving for this play.

Diagram 3.3.3: Runners at first and third and R1 stealing 2nd base

3.3.4 – Additional Coverage for a “Broken” Play (see Diagram 3.3.4):
* Should the ball get away at 2nd base and roll towards the outfield, BU must be prepared to move into position for a possible play at 3rd base if R1 decides to go. 
* BU must also keep his eye on the original play at 2nd base, watching for possible obstruction. 
* As R1 is getting up and deciding to try for 3rd, BU should cut towards the “imaginary” 45 ft. line on the 3rd base foul line, making sure that BU stays in front of R1 and that he keeps his eye on the play for any possible obstruction. 
* He must glance at the location of the ball and then glance back at R1 so as to “key” off the reactions of R1. 
* Should BU see R1 commit to 3rd on this play, BU should quickly break roughly towards the cutout at 3rd, moving in the direction of an “imaginary” 45-foot line along the 3rd base line. 
* It is imperative on this play that BU NOT run parallel to the baseline with R1.  This almost certainly results in R1 beating BU to 3rd and BU looking up the back end of the play at 3rd – a terrible position to evaluate the play. 
* Should a play be made on R1 at 3rd base, BU must also come to a stop and be completely set for the play.

Diagram 3.3.4: Steal at 2nd base; throw goes into center field and R1 advances to 3rd.

3.4 – Ground Balls to the Infield with R3 on 3rd & R1 on 1st Bases

3.4.1 – PU’s Mechanics on a Ground Ball to the Infield with R3 on 3rd and R1 on 1st (Not Rolling Up the Base Lines):
* On a ground ball to the infield (other than those rolling up the foul lines), PU will swing out from behind the plate a few feet into foul territory in the direction of 3rd base.  He must be aware of the potential play at the plate on R3 coming from 3rd (see Diagrams 3.4.1-a & 3.4.1-b). 
* PU will be responsible for all plays at the plate.
* If R3 from 3rd is clearly scoring with no play being made on him, PU will continue moving up the 3rd base line, preparing for any potential play at 3rd on R1 from 1st (PU will glance over his right shoulder to watch R3 from 3rd touch home plate). 
* Should the ground ball develop into a double-play situation, as soon as the lead runner is declared out at 2nd base, PU will stop his movement in the direction of 3rd base and will immediately retreat in one of two ways to take his usual responsibilities with a ground ball with no one on base.  PU may either (either method is acceptable):
o PU may retreat straight back down the 3rd base foul line towards home plate so that he is looking up the 1st base foul line as the play is being made at 1st base; or
o PU may cut straight across the infield grass towards the 1st base foul line so that he again will have a view of the play at 1st base looking up the 1st base foul line.    
* There are three reasons for having PU return to the 1st baseline.  PU will be responsible for Primary/Secondary Responsibilities:
o PU will be watching for interference by BR while out of the 45-foot lane.  Should PU see such an infraction, he should make the call.  This is not to say, however, that BU may never make such a call.  For example, if BU observes BR interfere with the play at 1st base while clearly out of the 45-foot lane, it is of course permissible for BU to make this call also.
o PU will be ready for any overthrows at 1st base.  If PU sees the ball being overthrown at 1st base, he will immediately and rapidly move with the overthrow and take responsibility for the ball going out of play.
o PU is also in position to help on “swipe tags” on BR at 1st base.  Although this is rarely used, it is permissible for BU to ask for help on a “swipe tag” on this play – if, for some reason, BU does not have a good look at the play.  (Note that the “appeal” should be initiated by BU immediately and before a confrontation with a player or manager occurs.)  The terminology by BU would be, “Bill, did he tag him?” or “Bill, do you have a tag?” while pointing to PU.  The response by PU would be a very emphatic, “Yes! He’s out on the tag!” or “No! He missed him!” while using a strong visual signal. 

Diagram 3.4.1-a: BR hits ground ball played by F5 or F6 (to BU’s right) & the play goes to 1st base

Diagram 3.4.1-b: BR hits ground ball played by F1, F3 or F4 (to BU’s left) and the play goes to 1st base

3.4.2 – PU’s Mechanics on a Ground Ball Rolling Up Either Base Line with R3 on 3rd and R1 on 1st :
* Primary/Secondary Responsibilities: There are three reasons for having PU return to the 1st baseline as discussed in Section 3.4.1 above (interference, overthrows & “swipe tags”).
* PU’s Mechanics on a Ground Ball Rolling Up the 3rd Base Line with R3 on 3rd and R1 on 1st :
o If the ground ball is up the 3rd base line, PU will normally take the fair/foul decision from only a step or two up the 3rd base line, being prepared to “bounce” back into position for any play at the plate. 
o There may be occasions, however, when the ball is rolling down the 3rd base line in such a way that PU will not be able to move down the 3rd base line at all; and in those cases PU must take the fair/foul decision from behind the plate, straddling the 3rd base line extended (for example, if R3 from 3rd is attempting to score on the ground ball).
* PU’s Mechanics on a Ground Ball Rolling Up the 1st Base Line with R3 on 3rd and R1 on 1st :
o If the ground ball is up the 1st base line, PU will take the fair/foul decision from behind the plate, straddling the 1st base line extended.  In this situation, PU will stay on the line extended and WILL NOT assume responsibility of R1 from 1st to 3rd.  (BU in this case assumes that responsibility.) 
o PU should communicate with BU on this type of play (i.e., ground ball up the 1st base line) by saying, “I’m on the line, Bill!” although this must be done with some care so that the infielders are not confused by PU’s communication. 
o BU should be aware that if the ball is rolling up the 1st base line, PU will be taking responsibility for the fair/foul and will NOT be able to take the usual R1 from 1st to 3rd coverage.  This makes it very difficult for BU on the occasions when the play is made at 1st with a following (and usually very close) play at 3rd. 
o Also note that this same mechanic (i.e., PU staying with the ball and remaining on the 1st base line to watch for interference out of the three-foot lane, overthrows, etc.) would also be used on a ground ball fielded in the general vicinity of home plate with R3 and R1 on bases in addition to those hit up the 1st base line.

3.4.3 – BU’s Mechanics on a Ground Ball to the Infield with R3 on 3rd and R1 on 1st (Not a Double Play):
* BU must recognize that there are several possibilities which may occur on the ground ball. 
* It is therefore extremely important in these situations that BU does not over-commit prematurely, that he shows good reactions to the development of the play.
* BU will be responsible for all plays at 1st, 2nd and 3rd except that PU will generally be responsible for a subsequent play at 3rd base on R1 from 1st. 
* There are many other ways the play could develop such as, but not limited to: a play directly to 3rd base; a play at 3rd base followed by a rundown; a play only at 2nd base; a play only at 1st base; a play at 1st base followed by a play at 3rd base on R1 from 1st (PU would normally have the play at 3rd); the ball getting by the infielder and going into the outfield; as well as several other possibilities. 
* BU will let the ball take him to the play. 
* BU will step up and turn with the ball, facing the fielder as he is fielding the ball. 
* BU will “bounce” back towards the other runner(s) after the initial play.
* If a 2nd-to-1st double play occurs, BU would cover this as described in Section 3.4.4. 

3.4.4 – 2nd-to-1st Double-Play Mechanics with R3 on 3rd and R1 on 1st (See Diagram 3.4.4):
* BU will step up, turn with the ball and face it while taking three (3) aggressive steps towards the back of the pitcher’s mound.
* As the ball is being thrown to 2nd base, BU positions his feet and “opens the gate” toward the 45 foot mark early by angling his feet that direction while twisting and turning his head, shoulders and torso square to the play at 2nd. 
* BU obtains a standing set*** position ready to move when the middle infielder receives the throw and shows his release.  Determine safe/out of R1 from a momentary standing set position.  Turn slightly (chest to right field corner); observe (watch) the remaining action at 2nd base as you move toward the 45 foot mark on the 1st base line.  While taking a step or two, use this as an artificial timing mechanism to force continued reading of the turn man’s release of the ball at 2nd base. 
* Then display and voice the result of the play while continuing to “cross-over” step into position for the play at 1st base (the back end of the double play). (Normally BU will go as far as the play will allow, usually 2 to 4 aggressive steps) and prepare for the play to 1st.  (Individual agility and speed will determine how many steps are possible). 
* Let the relay throw turn BU’s upper body toward 1st base and begin settling into a set position and focus on F3’s feet and 1st base as the throw passes BU on it’s way to 1st base.

Additional Notes:
* BU should be completely stopped and set ** for each play.  It is also important that BU NOT drift towards 1st base more than a couple of steps as the ball is originally fielded and thrown to 2nd base so as not to be too far from the play at 2nd base when it occurs.  (The reasoning here is to have BU remain in good position for potential “problems” at 2nd base, including, but not limited to: bobbled balls, dropped balls, close plays, possible interference, etc.).
* In a game played under pro rules, do not call obstruction/interference at 2nd base unless your partner asks your opinion.  It is his responsibility and it is almost impossible to see the action from more than 100 feet away.

*** Note: The intent of the word “set” as it appears here is that the umpire will come to a complete stop, facing the play, and be in a ready position to make the call not necessarily with hands on knees unless so specified in this manual.

Diagram 3.4.4: 2nd-to-1st double play on ground ball to F6 with R1 and R3; R3 scoring on the play

3.5 – Fly Balls and Line Drives to the Infield with R3 on 3rd & R1 on 1st Bases

3.5.1 – Responsibilities for A Fly Ball and Line Drive to the Infield with R3 on 3rd and R1 on 1st (See Diagram 3.5.1):
* PU is responsible for all fly balls and line drives to F1. 
* PU will take all fly balls fielded by F2. 
* PU is also responsible for either F3 or F5 are moving towards the foul line.
* BU is responsible for all other fly balls and line drives to the infield.

   
Diagram 3.5.1: Responsibilities for fly balls and line drives responsibilities to the infield with R3 & R1 on bases.
   

3.5.2 – PU’s Mechanics When a Fly Ball or Line Drive Is Hit to the Infield with R3 on 3rd and R1 on 1st :
* Except that with two out, PU will generally assume the normal 1st-to-3rd coverage (unless the ball is hit near the foul lines).  PU will need to be moving towards 3rd base (glancing back at the runner from 3rd touching home plate) in case the ball should be dropped.
* PU should swing out from home plate a few feet into foul territory in the direction of 3rd base to observe the play (unless the ball is hit near the foul lines). 
* PU continues to have responsibility for R1 coming from 1st to 3rd if the ball should be dropped.  
* If the fly ball is fielded in the vicinity of the 1st base line, PU normally will take this play from behind home plate, straddling the 1st base line extended.  On the rare occasion when the ball would be dropped and R1 continues on to 3rd, PU would not have responsibility for that play (for example with two out and runner on the move).
* If the fly ball is fielded in the vicinity of the 3rd base line, PU should straddle the line a step or two up the line to make the call unless two are out, in which case PU should take the play from behind the plate, straddling the 3rd base line extended. 
* PU’s positioning on line drives to the infield would be the same as just mentioned for fly balls to the infield.

Diagram 3.5.2-a: Fly ball up 1st base line (in infield) with R3 on 3rd base only.

Diagram 3.5.2-b: Fly ball up the 3rd base line (in infield) with R3 on 3rd base only and less than two outs

   
3.5.3 – BU’s Mechanics When a Fly Ball is Hit to the Infield with R3 on 3rd and R1 on 1st :
* BU will step up and turn with the ball and face the infielder.
* BU will glance back over his shoulder at 1st base as necessary to watch BR touch 1st base. 
* It is permissible for BU to take a couple steps backward towards the mound (“step up, turn & face the ball”) to open up the field of play as the fly ball is hit. 
* If the infielder is moving in to make the play, BU may have to move several steps – including to either side of the mound – in order to give the fielder room to make the play. 
* BU must guard against taking himself completely out of position and positioning in any potential “throwing lane” in case the ball should be dropped. 
* If the ball is caught, BU has responsibility for any play at 3rd base on R3 on 3rd. 
* If the ball is dropped, BU has responsibility for all plays at 1st, 2nd and 3rd.

(See Diagrams 3.5.2-a and 3.5.2-b regarding mechanics for fly balls fielded near the 1st and 3rd base lines.)

3.5.4 – Remember to Vary Intensity of Voice & Signal:
* If the fly ball is a “routine” catch, the umpire need not call or signal anything. 
* If the catch turns out to be a “difficult” play, the umpire would sell the call as needed.

3.6 – Fly Balls and Lines Drives to the Outfield with R3 on 3rd & R1 on 1st Bases

3.6.1 – Responsibilities for a Fly Ball and Line Drive to the Outfield with R3 on 3rd and R1 on 1st (See Diagram 3.6.1):
* Fly balls (or line drives) from F7 straight in all the way to F9 straight in (sometimes referred to as the “80%” or the “V”) belong to the base umpire (BU). 
* Fly balls (or line drives) where F7 moves any distance towards the left field line - his right - (sometimes referred to as the “10%”) belong to the plate umpire (PU). 
* Fly balls (or line drives) where F9 moves any distance towards the right field line - his left - (sometimes referred to as the “10%”) belong to the plate umpire (PU)

Important Note: It is important that the two umpires communicate after the ball is hit on fly balls and line drives to the outfield, particularly when balls are hit to F7 or F9.  The reason here is so that each umpire is certain who has responsibility for any given fly ball or line drive to the outfield.

Diagram 3.6.1: Outfield fly ball and line drive responsibilities with R3 & R1 on bases – This coverage is sometimes referred to as “80% - 20%”” or “the cone” fly ball coverage.

3.6.2 – Fly Ball or Line Drive to the Outfield with R3 on 3rd and R1 on 1st :
* PU is responsible for the tag-up at 3rd base as well as any play at the plate on R3 advancing from 3rd base.
* If the fly ball belongs to BU, PU will swing out several steps to his left (usually in the general direction of the 3rd base dugout) in order to “line up” the tag at 3rd base.
* After the tag-up, PU will immediately “bounce” back home, setting up for any possible play at the plate on R3. 
* The actual distance and direction PU swings out to his left will vary depending on the direction the fly ball is hit, and in most cases it will not be possible for PU to have an exact line on the tag-up; however, this swinging out to the left will help decrease the angle on lining up the tag at 3rd base.
* If the ball is not caught, PU would also be responsible for the play at 3rd base on R1 1st unless PU has gone up the 1st base or right field line for fly ball coverage.
* BU is responsible for the tag-up at 1st base if R1 tags, and the touch of 1st base by BR. 
* BU is also responsible for any play on R3 going back into 3rd base as well as any play at 1st, 2nd, or 3rd if the ball is not caught (except when PU has 1st-to-3rd coverage). 
* BU should use the “pause, read, and react” technique to decide whether or not he should move to the edge of the grass.  It allows the play to develop and reveal enough information to determine whether the play is a “trouble” play or not. 
*  After the ball has been determined to belong to BU (the ball is batted to BU’s outfield coverage area), BU will:
o “Pause” (hesitate momentarily to gather information about the developing play)
o “Read” (focus his attention on the reactions of the outfielder(s) by  taking his eye off the ball, zeroing in on the of the outfielders movements,  “keying” off the outfielders reactions, and watching for–and determining if the outfielder’s reactions reflect “trouble” or reflect ”trouble” cues). 
o “React” (pivot into the infield on “routine” outfielder reactions or go out on “trouble” reactions to the ball).  If there is any doubt about whether a play is “trouble” or not, BU should go out.
* If the ball is not caught, BU would also be responsible for all touches of 1st and 2nd and the touch of 3rd by BR.
* “Difficult” plays are defined as home runs; balls hit off the outfield wall; diving catches; catches made by the outfield below his waist on a dead run; catches made with fielders converging on the ball; catches by the outfielder with his back towards the infield; catches made by the outfielder at the wall or on the warning track; etc.

3.6.3 – “Routine” Outfield Fly Ball or Line Drive to BU’s Responsibility Area with R3 on 3rd and R1 on 1st (See Diagram 3.6.3):
* BU will step up, turn with the ball, and back up only two or three steps towards the mound to open up the playing field.  [NOTE: We call this area behind the mound the “working area” for BU.  From this “working area” he is in good position for observing his responsibilities and for moving into proper position as plays develop.] 
* When BU has multiple runner responsibilities, if no play develops after the base hit, BU should maintain his basic position in this “working area” and not be drawn unnecessarily towards a base without a potential play developing there.
* BU will back up two or three steps towards the mound (into the “working area”) in order to open up the playing field to observe the catch, watch R1 tag-up at 1st, and BR touch 1st .  By backing up these few steps towards the mound, it will be easier for BU to cover these responsibilities by opening the field up further in front of him.
* BU is responsible for the catch, the tag-up at 1st base if R1 tags, the touch at 1st base by BR, and all subsequent plays on the bases (other than 1st-to-3rd plays) if the ball is not caught.
* If the catch is “routine”, BU need not call or signal anything.

Diagram 3.6.3: “Routine” fly ball to the middle of the outfield with 1 out – R1 and R3 and R3 tagging and scoring with a "time play"

3.6.4 – “Difficult” Outfield Fly Ball or Line Drive to BU’s Responsibility Area with R3 on 3rd and R1 on 1st :
* BU should move to the edge of the infield grass in the direction the ball is hit in order to cover the play.
* BU will sell the call from this position and immediately “bounce” back to pick up responsibilities of the base runners. 
* BU will glance over his shoulder at 1st base to see BR’s touch of 1st base or the tag-up at 1st if R1 tags.
   
3.6.5 – “Difficult” Outfield Fly Ball or Line Drive down the Right Field Line in PU’s Area with R3 on 3rd and R1 on 1st (If the fly ball or line drive causes F9 to move any distance toward the right field line): (see Diagram 3.6.5):
* PU MUST communicate to his partner that PU has responsibility for the ball. 
* If the fly ball or line drive causes F9 to move any distance towards the right field line, PU will communicate to his partner, “I’m on the line, Bill!” to indicate that he is taking the ball. 
* This terminology will indicate that PU will NOT have the normal 1st-to-3rd responsibility on this play if the ball is not caught. 
* PU will move down the 1st base line to observe and rule on the play based on the location of the ball, the location of the fielders, the number of outs, and whether or not R3 on 3rd base is tagging. 
* PU’s positioning down the 1st base line on these plays will vary. 
* BUT, PU will go only so far that he is CERTAIN he will have ample time to get back to home plate for any possible play there on R3 coming from 3rd base. 
* Since R3 will be tagging in many of these situations, it will generally not be possible for PU to move very far down the 1st base line to rule on the ball because of the potential play at the plate (see Diagram 3.6.5). 
* Since PU has responsibility for the tag-up at 3rd base, he must take a quick glance over his left shoulder at 3rd base after the ball is touched to judge the tag-up – this is a difficult mechanic for PU.  The first priority in these situations is the ball, and for that reason PU must be in a good position for any possible fair/foul or catch/no catch decision down the right field line. 
* PU will come to a stop to see the play, make the call, and watch the tag-up; and after he has ruled on the play (and watched the tag-up), he will normally hustle back home IMMEDIATELY and be ready for any play there. 
* However, he still has responsibility for the ball going out of play, and so there may be occasions when he may “linger” on the line, watching the ball; but normally he will immediately “bounce” back home.

Diagram 3.6.5: Fly ball down right field line with R3 tagging

3.6.6 – “Difficult” Outfield Fly Ball or Line Drive Down the Left Field Line in PU’s Area with R3 on 3rd and R1 on 1st (If the fly ball or line drive causes F7 to move any distance toward the left field line): (see Diagram 3-6.6-a & 3.6.6-b):
* PU will take the ball and communicate loudly to his partner, “I’ve got the ball, Bill!” or “That’s my ball, Bill!” 
* PU will move up the 3rd base line to rule on the play.
* PU will go up the line only so far that he is certain he will have ample time to get back to home plate for any possible play there. 
* PU’s position will vary, depending on the location of the ball, the speed of the runner, whether or not the runner is tagging, the number of outs, etc.
* PU also has responsibility for the tag-up at 3rd base, he must glance at R3 as the ball is touched – this is a difficult mechanic.  PU must remember that the first priority is the ball. 
* PU will come to a stop to see the play, make the call, and watch the tag-up.
* PU will then immediately hustle quickly back home, communicating to his partner, “Going home, Bill! Going home!” 
* PU will still have responsibility for the ball going out of play in this situation, and so he will need to keep his eye on the ball. 
* PU must never go so far down the line that he does not have ample time to return to the plate and set up in proper position for any play on the runner coming from 3rd base. 
* If the ball is not caught, PU has 1st-to-3rd responsibility for R1 from 1st base.  PU would continue on up the 3rd base line, glancing over his right shoulder at R3 from 3rd touching home plate, and prepare to move into the cutout for a potential play at 3rd (see Section 3.7.2). 
* PU will communicate to his partner, “I’ve got 3rd, Bill! I’ve got 3rd!” as he moves into the cutout.
* This would release BU to “slide” over and pick up BR.

Diagram 3.6.6-a: Fly ball down left field line with R3 advancing after tagging up

Diagram 3.6.6-b: “Trouble” fly ball down left field line; ball not caught and R1 advancing to 3rd

3.6.7 – Remember: The First Priority – Watch the Ball:
* IT IS VERY IMPORTANT TO NOTE THAT IN FLY BALL COVERAGE, THE FIRST PRIORITY IS ALWAYS THE BALL. 
* There may be an occasion when BU may miss BR touching 1st base because BU had to keep his eye on the ball. 
* There may also be a time when BU does not have the best look at the tag-up at 1st because he had to move to the edge of the grass for a “difficult” catch in the outfield. 
* This is simply a drawback of the two-umpire system. 

3.7 – Base Hit to the Outfield with R3 on 3rd & R1 on 1st Bases

3.7.1 – Responsibilities on “Obvious” Base Hit to the Outfield with R3 on 3rd and R1 on 1st (i.e., no possible fair/foul or catch/no catch):
* PU has responsibility for the play going into 3rd base on R1 from 1st base. 
* PU is also responsible for all plays at the plate as well as all touches of 3rd (except for BR) and all touches of home plate. 
* BU is responsible for all plays at 1st, 2nd and 3rd (except when PU has 1st-to-3rd coverage). 
* BU also has responsibility for all touches of 1st and 2nd and the touch at 3rd by BR (see Diagram 3.7.1).

Diagram 3.7.1: Obvious (“Clean”) base hit with R1 and R3; R1 advancing to 3rd

3.7.2 – Mechanics on “Obvious” Base Hit to the Outfield with R3 on 3rd and R1 on 1st (i.e., no possible fair/foul or catch/no catch):
* PU will come out from behind the plate in the direction of 3rd base, keeping approximately three to six feet into foul territory as he moves down the 3rd base line. 
* PU will watch R3 from 3rd touch home plate by glancing back over his right shoulder as he moves down the line. 
* It is suggested that as PU leaves the cutout area at home plate, if he observes that a possibility exists of a play at 3rd on R1 from 1st, PU should make an initial communication to his partner, “I’ve got 3rd if he comes,” alerting his partner to the possibility of a 1st-to-3rd play. 
* As a play at 3rd begins to appear likely or imminent, PU will move into the cutout at 3rd and communicate loudly to his partner, “I’ve got 3rd, Bill! I’ve got 3rd!” 
* BU will step up, turn with the ball, and back up only two or three steps towards the mound (into the “working area”) to open up the playing field. 
* BU will observe R1 touch 2nd base and BR touch 1st base. 
* BU will watch the development of the play from the “working area” and let the ball take him to the play (see Section 3.7.3).
* When PU communicates, “I’ve got 3rd, Bill! I’ve got 3rd!” this will release BU to pick up BR. 

3.7.3 – Staying within the "Working Area":
As the ball is being thrown to the infield with multiple runners on base, BU should let the ball take him to the play.  Only when BU anticipates the potential for a play should he move out of the "working area" and “drift” (or commit) towards a base into a position for his developing play.  If no play develops (or is anticipated) on the bases or runners simply advance and no play develops on them, BU would maintain his position within the "working area."  This is an important concept and mechanic and applies to all situations when more than one runner is on base -not just with R3 and R1. 

3.7.4 – Base Hits to the Outfield; 1st–to–3rd Responsibilities – R1 to 3rd Base Play with R3 on 3rd and R1 on 1st
* BU will step up, turn with the ball, and back up only two or three steps towards the mound to open up the playing field.  NOTE: We call this area behind the mound the “working area” for BU.  From this “working area” he is in good position for observing his responsibilities and for moving into proper position as plays develop. 
* When BU has multiple runner responsibilities, if no play develops after the base hit, BU should maintain his basic position in this “working area” and not be drawn unnecessarily towards a base without a potential play developing there. (See Section 3.7.3 “Staying within the Working Area”.)
* BU has the responsibility of the touch at 2nd base by R1 as well as the touch of 1st base by BR. 
* PU will come out from behind home plate in the direction of 3rd base, keeping approximately three to six feet into foul territory as he moves down the 3rd base line. 
* As PU leaves the cutout area at home plate, if he observes that a possibility exists of a play into 3rd onR1, PU will make an initial communication to his partner, “I’ve got 3rd if he comes!” – alerting his partner to the possibility of a 1st-to-3rd play.
* As PU nears half way up the 3rd base line (this area is often referred to as the “library,” PU should glance back at R3 touching home plate turn while continuing to move toward 3rd base.
* If PU sees there will be no possible play going into 3rd on R1 [indicating that R1 will either (1) hold up at 2nd; or (2) will easily attain 3rd base with no play on him – and instead the possibility exists of a play at the plate on R1], PU will retreat back towards home in foul territory and communicate to his partner, “Going home, Bill!   Going home!” at the moment he recognizes no play will occur going into 3rd base. 
* When PU sees that there is a good possibility for a play into 3rd (both ball and runner are coming into 3rd base and a play is imminent), PU will communicate to BU as he moves into the cutout at 3rd. “I’ve got 3rd”.  I’ve got 3rd.” 
* PU should immediately get into position for the play into 3rd, obtaining proper distance and angle for the play. 
* PU should be completely set at the cutout and waiting for the play (ball and runner), NOT timing his arrival so that he is getting set as the play is about to occur. 
* In getting into position for the play, PU should initially square his body towards 3rd base as he sets for the play and watch the ball by turning his head.
* If R1 is declared out at 3rd base, PU will pivot out of the cutout and head back to home plate in foul territory, keeping the ball in front of him and his eye on the ball. 
* If R1 is safe at 3rd, PU will again keep his eye on the ball, and after the ball is thrown to F1 he will pivot out of the cutout, come across the 3rd base foul line into foul territory, and head back to home plate. 
* If the ball is overthrown at 3rd base (so that R1 may get up and start home),
o PU will stay in fair territory and take responsibility of R1 going home. 
o PU should turn with the ball, keep his eye on the ball, pivot out of the cutout at 3rd with his left leg opening up towards home and move in fair territory in the direction of the home plate cutout, staying, off of the foul line so as not to interfere with the runner’s progress. 
o Should a play develop at the plate, PU will be set in fair territory (usually in front of the plate) with proper distance and angle for the play. 
o BU will be with BR – his only runner at this time.

3.7.5 – Summary of Important Concepts for 1st–to–3rd Mechanics with R3 on 3rd and R1 on 1st :
* While the ball is in the outfield, PU will have to make an important decision.  He must instinctively "read" the play– taking into consideration the location of the ball, the reactions and positioning of R1 rounding 2nd base, and the position and reactions of the outfielder – and so determine the likelihood of a play at 3rd base on R1. 
* If PU observes that R1 has committed to 3rd and that a play at 3rd base is likely (or in fact, imminent), PU will cut into fair territory somewhere between halfway and three-quarters of the way to 3rd, break quickly (“bust”) towards the cutout at 3rd, and communicate loudly to his partner, "I've got 3rd, Bill!  I’ve got 3rd!”  (Note that in going down the 3rd base line, PU must also watch for F1 coming across the foul line to back up the play at 3rd.) 
* When BU – who at this point has simply backed up two or three steps towards the pitcher’s mound (into the “working area”) to observe the play and watch the runners touch their bases – hears PU communicate, “I’ve got 3rd!” he will then transfer responsibility of R1 to PU.  At that point BU will start to “slide” over to the 1st base side and pick up BR, who at this point becomes his only runner. 
* If BR rounds 1st and commits to 2nd, BU will quickly move towards the 2nd base cutout. 
* If BR rounds 1st and holds up there, BU will “slide” still closer towards the 1st base cutout – but he will not go all the way back to the cutout in case R1 should happen to get into a rundown between 2nd and 3rd – the rundown would belong to BU except for the cutout at 3rd, which is covered by PU. 
* If PU sees there will be no possible play going into 3rd on R1 [indicating that R1 will either (1) hold up at 2nd; or (2) will easily attain 3rd base with no play on him – and instead the possibility exists of a play at the plate on R1], PU will retreat back towards home in foul territory and communicate to his partner, “Going home, Bill!   Going home!” at the moment he recognizes no play will occur going into 3rd base. 

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